Amazona ochrocephala – Yellow-crowned Amazon

Yellow-crowned Amazon - Amazona ochrocephala (Gmelin, JF, 1788) - is a large green parrot with a characteristic yellow forehead and relatively short square tail.

The yellow patch on the forehead can vary in size, which may cause confusion with Yellow-naped Amazon (Amazona auropalliata), Yellow-headed Amazon (Amazona oratrix) and Southern Mealy Amazon (Amazona farinosa).

They are very social and usually seen in pairs or flocks with larger gatherings at communal roosts or feeding areas.

The lifespan is up to 50-60 years.

The Yellow-crowned Amazon is included on CITES Appendix II.

 

Taxonomy

  • Order: Psittaciformes
  • Family: Psittacidae
  • Genus: Amazona

Synonyms

  • Danish: Gulisset Amazone
  • English: Yellow-crowned Amazon, Yellow-crowned Parrot, Yellow-fronted Amazon, Panama Amazon, Panama Yellow-fronted Amazon, Natterer's Amazon, Marajo Yellow-crowned Amazon
  • French: Amazone à front jaune
  • German: Gelbscheitelamazone
  • Portuguese: Papagaio-campeiro
  • Spanish: Amazona Real

IUCN Red List

BirdLife International. 2016. Amazona guatemalae.
The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T45430583A95154327.
https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T45430583A95154327.en.
Downloaded on 25 June 2020.

Description

Overall green plumage with yellow forehead and forecrown. The green feathers on nape and back are edged with black. Red bend of wing.  The base of the first five secondaries is red - the other secondaries have a green base. Green thighs washed with yellow. Orange eye with white eye ring white. The bill is dark grey with orange sides of upper mandible.

The juveniles have similar colors but are duller; less yellow on forehead and less red on bend of wing; the bill is dark brown/grey; eyes are brown.

Size: 31-38 cm
Weight: 380-500 g

Yellow-crowned Amazon (Amazona ochrocephala panamensis) (right) sleeping next to Yellow-headed Amazon (Amazona oratrix) (left)

Habitat

The habitat ranges from western Panama to eastern Peru and northern Bolivia.

They prefer lowland tropical forests, woodlands, mangroves and savannas but can also be seen on cultivated land and suburban areas.

 

 

Sub-species

  • Amazona ochrocephala ochrocephala (Gmelin, JF, 1788) - Yellow-fronted Amazon
    Habitat: Eastern Colombia, Venezuela through the Guianas and northern Brazil.
    Description: Yellow forehead and forecrown; red bend of wing; green thighs washed with yellow.
  • Amazona ochrocephala nattereri (Finsch, 1865) - Natterer's Amazon
    Habitat:  Southern Colombia, eastern Peru, northern Bolivia and western Brazil.
    Description: Overall darker green; green cheeks, ear coverts and throat washed with blue; sometimes a tint of blue on underparts.
  • Amazona ochrocephala panamensis (Cabanis, 1874) - Panama Amazon / Panama Yellow-fronted Amazon
    Habitat: Western Panama to north-western Colombia.
    Description: Yellow forehead, forecrown and lores; blue/green hindcrown to area above eyes; minimal red on bend of wing; thighs usually green but may be washed with yellow; smaller in size.
  • Amazona ochrocephala xantholaema (von Berlepsch, 1913) - Marajo Yellow-crowned Amazon
    Habitat: Endemic to Marajó Island off northern Brazil in the Amazon delta.
    Description: Yellow from forehead to nape; yellow ear coverts and upper cheeks; yellow thighs; larger in size

Diet

Wild birds feed on ripe fruit from various cacti, seeds, nuts and berries. Also feeds on maize.

Aviculture

Yellow-crowned Amazon is common (nominate subspecies) in aviculture; the A.o.panamensis subspecies is uncommon.

A vertical box about 30 x 30 x 60 is used as nest box.

The clutch usually contains 3 eggs that are incubated for 26 days. The chicks are fledged after 9-11 weeks.

 

Amazona ochrocephala panamensis